SpaceX blasts off NASA’s new planet-hunter, TESS


TAMPA, April 19, 2018 (BSS/AFP) – NASA on Wednesday blasted off its newest
planet-hunting spacecraft, TESS, a $337 million satellite that aims to scan
85 percent of the skies for cosmic bodies where life may exist.

“Three, two, one and liftoff!” said a NASA commentator as the Transiting
Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) soared into the blue sky atop a SpaceX
Falcon 9 rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida at 6:51 pm (2251 GMT).

The washing machine-sized spacecraft is built to search outside the solar
system, scanning the nearest, brightest stars for signs of periodic dimming.
These so-called “transits” may mean that planets are in orbit around them.

TESS is expected to reveal 20,000 planets beyond our solar system,
including more than 50 Earth-sized planets and up to 500 planets less than
twice the size of the Earth, NASA said.

Its discoveries will be studied further by ground- and space-based
telescopes for signs of habitability, including a rocky terrain, a size
similar to Earth and a distance from their sun — neither too close nor too
far — that allows the right temperature for liquid water.

“The stories of these planets will continue on, long after their
detection,” Martin Still, TESS program scientist, said on Wednesday.

– Four eyes on the sky –

“It was incredible. It was so emotional,” said Natalia Guerrero, a TESS
researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in an interview on
NASA TV after the launch.

She was part of a team that built four cameras that serve as the
spacecraft’s eyes.

“TESS’s four cameras are tiny but mighty,” she said.

“They are only about four inches (10 centimeters) across, the lenses. They
could fit in a mailbox. But they are so powerful. You could have an entire
constellation, like Orion, in the field of view of one of these cameras.”

TESS will survey far more cosmic terrain than its predecessor, NASA’s
Kepler Space Telescope, which launched in 2009.

Both use the same system of detecting planetary transits, or shadows cast
as they pass in front of their star.

The new spacecraft will focus on nearby exoplanets, those in the range of
30 to 300 light-years away.

Kepler’s trove of more than 2,300 confirmed planets outside our solar was
impressive, but most were too distant and dim to be examined further.

“One of the many amazing things that Kepler told us is that planets are
everywhere and there are all kinds of planets out there,” said Patricia
“Padi” Boyd, director of the TESS guest investigator program at NASA’s
Goddard Spaceflight Center.

“So TESS takes the next step. If planets are everywhere, then it is time
for us to find the planets that are closest to us orbiting bright nearby
stars, because these will be the touchstone system.”

The Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled
to launch in 2020, should be able to reveal more about planets’ mass, density
and the makeup of their atmosphere — all clues to habitability.

The initial launch attempt Monday was scrubbed about two hours before
planned takeoff, so that SpaceX engineers could perform extra checks on the
rocket’s navigation systems.

On Wednesday, the rocket performed flawlessly.

Less than 10 minutes after launch, the rocket’s first stage returned to an
upright landing on a drone ship in the Atlantic Ocean, marking SpaceX’s 24th
touchdown of a rocket booster.